Saturday, May 23, 2020

Heavy Water Facts

Heavy water is deuterium monoxide or water in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms is a deuterium atom. Deuterium monoxide has the symbol D2O or 2H2O. It is sometimes referred to simply as deuterium oxide. Here are facts about heavy water, including its chemical and physical properties. Heavy Water Facts and Properties CAS number 7789-20-0 molecular formula 2H2O molar mass 20.0276 g/mol exact mass 20.023118178 g/mol appearance pale blue transparent liquid odor odorless density 1.107 gm/cm3 melting point 3.8C boiling point 101.4C molecular weight 20.0276 g/mol vapor pressure 16.4 mm Hg refractive index 1.328 viscosity at 25C 0.001095 Pa s specific heat of fusion 0.3096 kj/g Heavy Water Uses Heavy water is used as a neutron moderator in some nuclear reactors.Deuterium oxide is used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in aqueous solutions involving the study of a hydrogen nuclide.Deuterium oxide is used in organic chemistry to label hydrogen or to follow reactions involving water.Heavy water is often used instead of regular water in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of proteins.Heavy water-moderated reactors are used to produce another isotope of hydrogen — tritium.Heavy water, made using deuterium and oxygen-18, is to test human and animal metabolic rates via the doubly labeled water test.Heavy water has been used in a neutrino detector. Radioactive Heavy Water? Many people assume heavy water is radioactive because it uses a heavier isotope of hydrogen, is used to moderate nuclear reactions, and is used in reactors to form tritium (which is radioactive). Pure heavy water is not radioactive. Commercial grade heavy water, much like ordinary tap water and any other natural water, is slightly radioactive because it contains trace amounts of tritiated water. This does not present any sort of radiation risk. Heavy water used as a nuclear power plant coolant contains significantly more tritium because neutron bombardment of the deuterium in heavy water sometimes forms tritium. Is Heavy Water Dangerous To Drink? Although heavy water isnt radioactive, its still not a great idea to drink a large volume of it because the deuterium from the water doesnt act quite the same way as protium (a normal hydrogen isotope) in biochemical reactions. You would not suffer harm from taking a sip of heavy water or drinking a glass of it, but if you only drank heavy water, youd replace enough protium with deuterium to suffer negative health effects. Its estimated you would need to replace 25-50% of the regular water in your body with heavy water to be harmed. In mammals, 25% replacement causes sterility. 50% replacement would kill you. Keep in mind, much of the water in your body comes from the food you eat, not just water you drink. Also, your body naturally contains small amounts of heavy water and every smaller amount of tritiated water. Primary Reference: Wolfram Alpha knowledgebase, 2011.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Project Reflection Tower Project - 912 Words

Tower Project Reflection My team and I were assigned to build a three feet tall tower for the City of Amber. We are able to do build a tower by getting a loan from Joyce Inc. and using that to buy resources. We are buying tiles to build a great tower for Ambler so that we may make a profit and name for our company. Our factors of production during the course of this project were: index cards and tape made up land resources. The workers made up the labor resources. Our capital, assets, was our loan, tape, cards, workers and decorations. Our entrepreneurship was whether we would take the risk of destroying our tower with the big apple and no insurance. These were my group’s factors of production during the project. The producers in the project were the businesses of Joyce’s Supplies Union. The consumers were all of the teams in all of the classes. I know all of the classes were involved, due to the fact I tried haggling for a lower price on the Beverly Hills cards, yet Manager Joyce claimed that teams in other classes brought a lot of them. Throughout the course of this project, I was the team’s accountant, I was the most directly involved with deciding the economics and budget of the groups. Balancing the needs and wants of the group as well as the finances was a huge challenge. For example, I wanted to buy the Beverly Hills six hundred dollar tiles, sadly due to my limited resources I had to stick with four one hundred dollar purple Auntie Ems tiles. My opportunity cost,Show MoreRelatedDubai Development And Transformation Of Dubai1478 Words   |  6 Pageseconomically, from tourism. Under the leadership of the Government of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid has initiated many different projects, which have contributed to Dubai and have given it a unique image around the world. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Mind-Body Issue in Science Free Essays

Neuroscience is the study of the brain and psychology is†¦well, the answer to that question is not exactly clear.   A direct interpretation of the word â€Å"psychology† boils down to â€Å"the study of the psyche† or â€Å"the knowledge of the psyche†, but psychology does not have a definition of the psyche and, in general, they do not believe in it.   Psyche comes from the Greek word meaning soul, so the psyche is actually the study of the soul, and yet psychology today has more or less become a study of the mind, and ironic situation since neither psychologists nor neuroscientists believe in the existence of the mind. We will write a custom essay sample on The Mind-Body Issue in Science or any similar topic only for you Order Now The generally held accepted view of the mind is that the mind arises from the activity of the brain.   Thus, a major philosophical concern of neuroscience is, â€Å"Does the mind exist separate and independent of the brain?†Ã‚   The generally accepted answer to this question is, â€Å"No.   The mind is an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity.†Ã‚   In the past, efforts were made to resolve this problem with philosophical arguments such as Fredric Weizmann’s ideas about genetics and embryology (Forsdyke, 1999) and Michael M. Sokal ideas about phrenology. Today, we can conclude that the mind/body problem of science has been successfully resolved despite the obvious fact that the resolution has yet to be recognized or acknowledged!   We can now take pride that the resolution to this dilemma did not result in confirming the â€Å"pervasive† 19th-century fear humans might ultimately be viewed as â€Å"mere machines† lacking souls. (Jacyna, 1994) Despite the generally accepted view that the mind is merely an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity, more or less superimposed over brain activity, there is actually no evidence to support the idea.   To date, all of the available data, without exception, suggests that the mind and the brain are two separate but interacting ‘things’.   Whatever evidence that does not suggest this is neutral.   The evidence is sufficiently strong to have swayed diehard monists (who believe that the mind is the brain) into becoming dualists (who believe that the mind and the brain are separate). Upon a review of the available data at the end of his life, the late neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield, MD (1891 – 1976), a former monist, concluded the evidence, â€Å"†¦it comes as a surprise now to discover, during this final examination of the evidence, that the dualist hypothesis seems the more reasonable of the two possible explanations.† (Penfield, 1975)   Although the available data may support Penfield’s conclusion, there are still some interesting, intriguing and difficult questions to answer such as, â€Å"What is the realm of consciousness and the mind,† â€Å"How does consciousness and the mind and the realm of mind relate to the brain and the physical body,† and â€Å"Does a mind exist independent of the brain and the physical body?†Ã‚   We can briefly address each of these questions separately. The central problem with the dualist point of view is that the mind exists as an abstraction unless it arises from brain activity.   If the mind exists separate and independent of the brain, the answer to our first question is that the mind exists as an abstract field as proposed around the 1920s by developmental biologist Paul Weiss. (Weiss, 1926)   Then, in the mid and late 1930s, Dr. Harold Saxton Burr and his associates discovered just such a field. (Burr and Lane, 1935; Burr and Northrop, 1939) Dr. Burr discovered that all living things are molded and controlled by invisible and intangible electro-dynamic fields, that he called â€Å"L-fields† for the â€Å"fields of life†.   John White and Stanley Krippner call the L-field the â€Å"‘bridge’ or intermediate link between the mental and the physical†¦they offer evidence that the mind and body are quite separate†¦.† (White and Krippner, 1977) If Burr’s findings are correct, it seems apparent that consciousness and the mind are electrodynamic fields that interact with the physical body.   Burr was able to make a definitive connection between the L-field and wound healing and between the L-field and the mental functions and mental states of individuals. Burr and his colleagues found that they could make impersonal, objective measurements of the mental and emotional states of psychiatric patients and that their electrical measurements generally agreed closely with psychiatric diagnoses.   Consciousness and the mind somehow relate to the brain and the physical body through an electrical connection or bridge of sorts, forces associated with and coupled to cells. (Jerndal, 1982) Finally, although the preferred view of the mind-body/mind-brain issue in neuroscience and psychology is the monistic view which states that the mind is merely an epiphenomenon that arises from brain activity, it is apparent that the mind transcends physical functions of the body, but there are concerns such as can more detailed studies be provided to determine if the mind can be associated with the L-field?   Burr, Ravitz and their colleagues provided evidence that established a relationship between nerve and other tissue and that made useful neurological and psychiatric measurements that were associated with mental functions. Therefore, they succeeded in establishing a firm connection between an abstract but very real field and the tangible nervous system.   This data provides concrete evidence for the existence of an independent mind that transcends the functions of the physical body.   Thus, it appears that the mind-brain and mind-body issue can be laid to rest.   Now, the problem is, â€Å"How to get the word out.†Ã‚   Perhaps that leaves us right back where we started, at least for now. References Becker, Robert O. and Gary Selden (1985).   THE BODY ELECTRIC.   Electromagnetism and The Foundation of Life.   New York, NY: Quill, William Morrow. Burr, H. S. (1952).   Electrometrics of Atypical Growth.   Yale J. Biol. Med., 25, 67-75. Burr, H. S. (1972).   The Fields of Life:   Our Links with the Universe.   New York, NY:   Ballantine Books. Burr, H. S., and Lane, C. T. (1935).   Electrical Characteristics of Living Systems.   Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 8, 31-35. Burr, H. S., and Northrop, F. S. C. (1939).   Evidence for the Existence of An Electrodynamic Field in the Living Organisms.   Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, U.S.A., 25, 284-288. Eccles, Sir John C. (1951).   Hypotheses Relating To The Brain-Mind Problem.   Nature, 168(4263), 53-57. Forsdyke, D. R. (1999). Two levels of information in DNA: Relationship of Romanes’ â€Å"intrinsic† variability of the reproductive system, and Bateson’s â€Å"residue† to the species-dependent component of the base composition, (C + G) %. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 201, 47-61 Jacyna, L. S. (1994). Philosophic whigs: Medicine, science and citizenship in Edinburgh 1789-1848. London: Routledge. Jerndal, Jens (1982).   The Field Resonance Approaching Medicine.   Text of a Paper presented at the 3rd World Congress of Alternative Medicine, Colombo, Sri Lanka 22nd October, 1982. Penfield, Wilder (1975).  Ã‚   The Mystery of the Mind:   A Critical Study of Consciousness and the Human Brain.   Princeton, NJ:   Princeton University Press. Weiss, P. A. (1926)   â€Å"Morphodynamik:   Ein Einblick in die Gesetzte der organischen Gestaltung an Hand von experimentellen Ergebnissen,† in Abhandlungen zur theoretischen Biologie, (J. Schaxel, ed.), Gebruder Borntraeger, Berlin. White, John, and Krippner, Stanley (1977).   Future Science.   Life Energies and the Physics of Paranormal Phenomena.   Garden City, NY:   Anchor Books.       How to cite The Mind-Body Issue in Science, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Drunk Drivers Should Be Imprisoned on the First Offense free essay sample

Drunk Drivers Should Be Imprisoned On The First Offense Drunk Drivers accounted for 32% of all traffic fatalities last year, which amounts to someone being killed every 45 minutes by a drunk driver. The penalties for most states is just temporary suspension of driver’s licenses for up to 1 year, and to only pay associated fines accessed by the court. Usually, drunken driving offenders are back on the road driving within a year, and with the assistance of a good attorney with weeks. Although, the product of a drunken driving accident may have ended in a fatality of an innocent motorist, the offenders are usually only charged with Manslaughter if that. Several organizations have been created throughout the years to fight for tougher penalties for drunk drivers. However, the federal government needs to impose mandated harsher penalties, such as 6 months up to 1 year of prison time for first offenders, and then maybe people would think twice about drinking and driving. We will write a custom essay sample on Drunk Drivers Should Be Imprisoned on the First Offense or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Also, all states needs to impose even tougher penalties for first offenders under the age of 21, by revoking their driver’s license until the age of 25 years old. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have been tracking drunk driving related statistics since 1982, and noted at that time drunken driving accidents were lower by 26% than they were in 2009. This should automatically raise concerns for state and federal legislatures to impose new laws that severe punish offenders. Several groups has emerged that support tougher penalties as well, such as Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD), Students Against Destructive Decision (SADD), The Century Council, and Bikers Against Drunk Drivers (BADD). These groups represent victims of families that have lost a loved one in alcohol-related accidents, and is currently seeking legislature against tougher penalties for drunk drivers. These groups believe just as I, that there needs to be a congruency among all states on tougher penalties such as imprisonment or permanent revocation of license on the first offense of driving under the influence. There are several states that have less harsh penalties for drunk driving, but yet they rank the highest for drunken driving offenses. For example, California ranks the highest in the country for drunken driving offenses, and for the first offense of drinking and driving. The offender may receive 48 hours of jail time, depending on the circumstances. Also, surprisingly North Carolina currently ranks 3rd in the country for drunken driving offenses. For the first offense of drinking and driving in NC, the offender receives 1 year mandatory suspension of driving license and has to undergo substance abuse assessment and treatment. These states rank the highest due to the high volume of colleges and college students in these areas. Also, several of the areas within these states lack metro transportation systems that would allow other alternatives to drinking and driving. In my opinion, there are no valid excuses that can safely form recognition for someone drinking and driving in the first place. This is why all states including these 2 states mentioned should have congruent laws mandating harsher penalties. Currently, many states are proactively pushing legislature on a federal level to aid in decreasing the number of drunken drivers, but some state and local governments are pushing to lower the legal age of drinking from 21 years old to 18 or 19 years old. Federal legislature is being reviewed to enforce â€Å"zero tolerance laws† in all 50 states. Also, federal legislature is preparing to reauthorize the nation’s highway bill, which enforces states to enact hardcore drunk driving legislation. Therefore, allowing incentives and funding to states for enforcing tougher penalties for drunken drivers. With these reinforcements in place at the federal level hopefully we can soon win the fight against drinking and driving. In conclusion, drunken drivers need to face tougher penalties for their actions. There is no way that a life that is taken, due to someone’s poor decision to drive after intoxication can be replaced or given back. Hopefully, with the efforts of state and federal governments cracking down on offenders, and organizations such as MADD, SADD, The Century Council, and BADD pushing for tougher penalties.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Micromax in India free essay sample

COMPANY OVERVIEW. It was in late 2007, when Mr. Rahul Sharma, The owner of Micromax who was into PCO business decided to diversify from PCO devices into the business of mobile handsets. The company designed a battery that could last 30 days on a single charge and give 17 hours of talk-time. Micromax asked vendors in China and Taiwan to manufacture 10,000 handsets with these battery specs and Micromaxs handset business was on its way. COMPANYS PERFORMANCE. Since our entry into the Indian mobile handset market in March 2008, our overall market share has increased from 0. 59% for the quarter ended September 30, 2008 to 6. 4% for the quarter ended March 31, 2010. Our handset sales have grown by 123. 48% from 1. 15 million units in the quarter ended June 30, 2009 to 2. 57 million units in the quarter ended March 31, 2010. We also sell mobile data cards for computers under our own brand to service providers in India. Micromax- Products : touch screen phone GSM mobile phone Utility mobile p hone CDMA mobile phone Qwerty Mobile phone Data Card MICROMAX MICROENVIROMENT : COMPANY: Micromax, based in Gurgaon, a city near New Delhi, designing them in India and manufacturing with partners in China which helps them to reduce their cost with indian expertise. We will write a custom essay sample on Micromax in India or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page COMPETITORS : Micromax faces a tough competition from market giants like Nokia,Motorola,Sony Ericson,Samsung,LG and small players like Karbonn,Lava,Intex,Videocon and Onida but their innovative design and latest technology with affordable price attracts the customers. PUBLICS : Media like Newspaper and Magazine are the medium used by micromax for connecting with the general public. Through TV Advertisement, Micromax has shown how interested they are to invest and create a brand in the mind of general public.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Favorite Example

Favorite Example Favorite – Coursework Example Favorite When I hear the word favorite, I get aware of my surrounding that very instant. Personally, favorite means more of something, if I was given a choice, I would prefer over the rest present. My childhood memories are made viable when I hear the word favorite. I get so anxious since it reminds me of things I love most in my life. It is imperative to note that what is deemed as favorite to someone is in-born within him/her. One of my childhood memories that become prevalent when I hear the word favorite is the color blue. I personally adore color blue. To me blue serves as the color which represents humility and tranquility. On the breath, I vividly remember an incident that occurred when I was child when my mom bought me a yellow dress as a Christmas gift instead of a blue dress. I despise bright colors. To show my dissatisfaction, I cried the whole day. It was obvious that my mom expected me to wear the yellow dress on Christmas day and so I had to play along and pretend to li ke the dress. All along, I did this while suffering deep down with the main objective of not upsetting my mom who went an extra mile to purchase the dress off her savings.When I grew up, I reminded my mom of the very incident of the yellow dress and she smiled without commenting. She then advised me later on that what she did was worthy given she had parental instincts. She shunned me off and told me that when I have my own kid I would understand what really happened on that fateful day.Evidently, there is a sense of dissatisfaction felt that occurs when that which is deemed favorite to someone is excluded from the equation. To feel relaxed and happy, one should take into consideration whatever serves as a favorite to him or her.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Evaluating the Effects of Regulatory Agencies on the LIMS ( Laboratory Essay

Evaluating the Effects of Regulatory Agencies on the LIMS ( Laboratory Information Management System ) - Essay Example tion, meets the standards set, notably CMS Regulations Part 493 Sub-part K, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA), and OSE Manual of Policies and Procedures (MAPP) 6700.2. In terms of information security, both agencies will be expecting to be satisfied that the requirements of CMS Regulations Part 170, regarding Information Security, have been met. In practice, Part 170 simply reflects ICT industry standard practice, so providing that the laboratory meets these industry standards, both agencies will be satisfied. In areas specifically involving pathology, a given LIMS implementation will also need to be approved by the College of American Pathologists (CAP). CAP regulators will expect that the LIMS implementation will meet their approval in four key areas: discipline, equipment manufacturer, specimen type and method of analysis. CAP inspections must be regarded as additional to the CMS and OSE inspections and compliance defined below. When examining the exchange of electronic health data, the Federal Regulators will be looking for the use of logical observation identifiers names and codes (LOINC) naming conventions. In order to facilitate the exchange of electronic clinical data between the LIMS being examined and other LIMS implementations, the Regulators will be checking for the use of systematized nomenclature of medicine clinical terms (SNOMED), as defined for specific U.S. applications by the CMS, FDA and, where relevant, CAP. All LIMS Implementations must meet the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Regulations Part 493 Subpart K - Quality System for Nonwaived Testing. This means each LIMS implementation must include as a minimum the following. Establishing and following policies and procedures for monitoring, assessing, and, when indicated, correcting problems identified in the general laboratory systems requirements specified in CMS Regulations Part 493 Subpart K that apply to the laboratory in